Kamis, 03 Mei 2012

verb and situation

verb and situation


VERB AND SITUATION
Verb
Verb (kata kerja) merupakan bagian dari unsure semantic yang dibutuhkan untuk membentuk sebuah clause
1.      CAUSATIVE VERB
Adalah bentuk kalimat yang kata kerja menyebabkan sesuatu untuk melakukan sesuatu
Contoh:
The children got the kite to fly
Kalimat  diatas adalah causative
The children adalah subjek yang menyebabkan kite untuk terbang
Entailment:
The kite flew
A.    Adverbial diagnostics
Kata keterangan untuk menerangkan kata kerja dalam sebuah clause
Contoh:
The stuff nurse gave Lucinda a key for the week
For the week merupakan adverbial diagnostic
B.     Tiga macam causative dan entailment
1.      Different verb
            She fed the baby some mashed banana
            Entailment:
            The baby ate some mashed banana
2.      Morphologically related verb and adjective
            Nitrogen spills have enriched the soil here
            Entailment:
            The soil is rich here
3.      Same verb from used causatively and non-causatively
            The guide walks tourists through the eco park
            Entailment:
            Tourist walk through the eco park

2.      SITUATION TYPE
Achievement                           : she got her ankle sprained
State                                        : she had sprained ankle
Activity                                   : she had physiotherapy
Accomplishment                     : she got better
Got dan have mempunyai banyak arti tergantung dengan tujuan dan menjadi satu arti ketika menjadi kata kerja didalam sebuah kalimat seperti 4 kalimat diatas.
a.       Accomplishment contain activities and achievements, which in turn contain states
Accomplishment = activity (achievement (state))
b.      Agents and goals
Agent, apabila subject secara sadar bertanggung jawab dengan apa yang terjdi
Goal, ada tujuan yang telah dicapai
State                      = -goal,-agent
Contoh            : Axel owned a pair of jeans
Achievement         = -agent, +goal
Contoh            : Axel received a pair of jeans
Activities               = + agent, - goal
Contoh            : He slept
Accomplishment   = + agent +goal
Contoh            : the river flooded the meadow
Kelompok 4
Angga dwinka
Asih lestari
Bayu jauhari
Jumratula aini


practice writing

practice writing


PRACTICE WRITING
Practice 13
Chronological Transition Signal
How to Reduce the Danger of Smoking
The Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW) has outlined some stapes to take some of the danger out of smoking for those people who are unable to quit smoking outright. First choose a cigarette with less tar and nicotine to reduce your intake of these pollutants. Second,don't smoke your cigarette all the way down. Smoke halfway and you will inhale only about 40 percent of the total tar and nicotine. Remember, 60 percent of these substances are contained in the last half of the cigarette. Third, lake fewer draws on each cigarette that is reducing the number of puffs on each cigarette. This will cut down on your smoking. Fourth, reduce your inhaling. Don’t open your lungs by inhaling deeply. Take short, shallow puffs. Fifth,smoke fewer cigarettes each day. This may be the most difficult step of all. However just follow these directions:
1.         Pick a time of day to start, and don't smoke before that time.
2.         Don't think of it as cutting down: think of it as postponing.
3.         Carry your cigarettes in a different pocket, or put them in a different place so that you can't reach for them automatically.
After that, think about the terrible diseases you are opening yourself up to each each time you smoke a cigarette.  Finally, if you follow each of these steps without cheating you should be able to at least control the number of cigarettes you smoke daily. Who knows, this might be the beginning of the end—of your smoking, that is.



Practice 14
Chronological Topic Sentences
STEP 1            Put a check in the space to the left of every topic sentence suggesting that a chronological paragraph will follow.
STEP 2            Circle the word or words in the sentences you have checked that indicate chronological order.
Example          :( In the past twenty-five years) (development) in the field of electronics have                                revolutionized the computer industry.
…        1. (The worst day in my life) was the day I left my family and my friends lo
…            Come to the United States.
…        2. (In my opinion), (television programs can be divided into three types): excellent, mediocre, and poor.
…        3. (The life cycle of the Pacific salmon) is one of nature's most fascinating
Phenomenon.
…        4. Gold is prized for two important characteristics.
…        5. (In the event of an earthquake), you should follow certain procedures in
Order to minimize the danger.
…        6. (The tensions) that led to the race riots of 1964 had been building for years.
…        7. (The election of) a U.S. President is a very long and complex process.
…        8. Smoking damages not only your lungs, but also your heart.
…        9. (There are three reasons) I believe that women should be drafted along
with men.
     10. (The rise of terrorist groups) in the past few years is an indication of the spread of anarchistic tendencies in the world.
Practice 15
Outlining a Chronological Paragraph.
Outline the paragraph, “How to Reduce the Danger of Smoking” on page 37. Include only the topic sentence, the six main steps and the concluding sentence in your outline: do not write every sentence. Underline the topic and concluding sentences.
Put the transition signals that you added in parentheses to the left of each supporting point, as in the example above.
How to Reduce the danger of smoking.
1.      The department of health, Education and Welfare (HEW)  has outlined some steps to take some of the danger out of smoking for those people who are unable to quit smoking outright.
A.    Choose a cigarette with less tar and nicotine to reduce your intake of these pollutants.           Second                      
B.      Don’t smoke your cigarette all the way down.
C.     Take fewer draws on each cigarette-that is, reduce the number of puffs on each cigarette. This will cut down on your smoking.         
D.    Reduce your inhaling. Don’t open your lungs by inhaling deeply. Take short, shallow puffs.
E.      Smoke fewer cigarettes each day.
F.       Think about the terrible diseases you are opening yourself up to each time you smoke
G.    If you follow each of these steps without cheating, you should be able to at least control the number of cigarettes you smoke daily.
Practice 16
Practice 16: Transition Signals for order of Importance
Reread the model paragraph for order of importance and draw a circle around. All the transition signals .if you find any that are not in the table, add them.
The Causes of Inflation
Inflation is an economic condition in which prices for consumer goods increase, and the value of money or purchasing power decreases. There are three important causes of inflation. The first and most important cause may be excessive government spending. For example, in order to finance a war or carry out social programs. The government may spend more money than it has received through taxes and other revenue, thus creating deficit. in order to offset this deficit, the treasury department can simply expand the money supply by issuing more paper money to meets the debts of government. This increase in the money supply will cause the value of the dollar to automatically decrease. The second cause of inflation occurs when the money supply increases faster than supply of goods. If people have more money, they will run out to buy. Popular goods like televisions and computers, for example, and a shortage will result. Industry will then produce more, at higher prices, to satisfy demand. Furthermore, if people think that the prices of popular goods are going up, they will buy and even borrow money at high interest rates to pay for them. Finally, if labor unions demand that workers’ wages be increased to cover the high cost of living, industry will meet this demand and add other costs of production on to the customer. In summary, all of these causes can create inflationary problems that can affect the welfare of a nation. However of these three causes, excessive government spending may be the most important.
Practice 17
1.      (My twenty-first birthday) was a day i will never forget.
2.      (In terms of salary), power and status, women are behind men in most occupations.
3.      Some meteorologists believe that (another ice age is approaching).
4.      Living in dormitory offers (three advantages to a newly arrived foreign students).
5.      Photisyine thesis is (the process by which plants manufacture their own food).
Practice 18
Inflation is an economic condition in which prices for consumer goods increase
A.    The first and most important cause may be excessive government spending
B.     The second cause of inflation occurs when the money supply increases faster than supply of goods.
C.     if people think that the prices of popular goods are going up, they will buy and even borrow money at high interest rates to pay for them
D.    all of these causes can create inflationary problems that can affect the welfare of a nation
Practice 19
Complete the following essay by choosing the correct word from those given in parentheses and writing it in the blank refers to these two graphs for information.
The Hazards of Driving Small Cars
Small cars may be hazardous to your health, according to a recent study conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The number of Americans dying. In automobile accidents is increasing (Increasing, decreasing, gaining, reducing) again after rising (rising. falling, inclining, declining sharply in 1974, when the national 55 mile per hour speed limit was imposed. Safety authorities warn that as drivers increasingly shift to fuel-saving smaller. Lighter cars the rise in the death toll will accelerate geometrically (Geometrically, arithmetically).
In 1079, the last year for which full statistics are available, small cars were involved in 55 percent (rate, ratio, Percentage, percent) of all fatal crashes even though they constituted only 38 percent (rate, ratio. Percentage, percent) of the cars on the road, acording to the Nation Highway. Traffic Safety Administration. Projecting from current trends, the agency and other safety officials predict (Estimate, guess, predict) that automobile traffic deaths will increase from (to, from, of, by) 30 percent by 1989, or (to, from. of. by) about 27.000 a year, of (to, from. of. by) about 35.000 a year, almost exclusively because of the inherent vulnerability of smaller cars.
Perhaps more significantly, the death rate per hundred million miles driven has begun to increase over the last three years, reversing a fifty-year downward trend. According to the safely council, the rate increased (increased, decreased, raised, rose) from a record low of 3.33 deaths per (per. Pro, of, from) hundred million miles in 1978 to (to, from, of, by) 3.40 in 1279 and 3.53 in 1980.
Based on its analysis of highway deaths, the highway safety council says occupants of subcompactact car are 3.4 times (times, double, triple) more likely to die than those in a compact if two such cars collide 6.3 ratio (ratio, times, lose) more likely to die in a crush with a midsize car and 8.2 rate (Times, quadruple, rile) more likely to die in a collision with a large car.

Practice 20 Punctuating and Writing Direct and Indirect Quotations
STEP 1            Add punctuation marks to the following direct quotations. Change the capitalization if necessary.
 STEP 2           Rewrite them as indirect quotations. Shift the verb tenses if necessary.
The sentences in this practice arc all about black holems, which are invisible masses in space larger than giant stars. The discovery of black holes is causing enormous excitement in the fields of astronomy and physics.
1.      Dr. John Miller, a well-known astrophysicist who has been studying black holes, said it is the greatest challenge we astrophysicists have ever faced.
Direct :
Dr. John Miller, a well-known astrophysicist who has been studying black holes, said, it is the greatest challenge we astrophysicists have ever faced.
Indirect :
Dr. John Miller, a well-known astrophysicist who has been studying black holes, said that it is the greatest challenge we astrophysicists have ever faced.

2.      He further explained in black holes the long-held laws of nature simply do not apply
Direct :
He further explained, in black holes the long-held laws of nature simply do not apply”.
Indirect :
He further explained that in black holes the long-held laws of nature simply do not apply


3.      A black hole is a huge, great, enormous, big nothing. explained Miller's associate, Kathleen Parker, it is an invisible vacuum cleaner in space, she added.
Direct :
A black hole is a huge, great, enormous, big nothing explained, Miller's associate, Kathleen Parker, it is an invisible vacuum cleaner in space, she added.
Indirect :
A black hole is a huge, great, enormous, big nothing explained that Miller's associate, Kathleen Parker, it is an invisible vacuum cleaner in space, she added.

4.      Black holes are created by the death of a very large star she stated.
Direct :
Black holes are created by the death of a very large star”, she stated.
Indirect :
Black holes are created by the death of a very large star she stated that.

6.      Since they cannot be seen, even with the most powerful telescopes she continued their existence can only be proven mathematically.
Direct :
She said, “Since they cannot be seen, even with the most powerful telescopes she continued their existence can only be proven mathematically.
Indirect :
She said that since they cannot be seen, even with the most powerful telescopes she continued their existence can only be proven mathematically.






Practice 21: Detailed Paragraph Outlining I
A. Complete the outline for the following paragraph.
The Confusing English Spelling System
            One of the most difficult and confusing aspects of the English language is it spelling system. There is often a discrepancy between the pronunciation of a word and its spelling. One cannot always tell how to spell a word by its pronunciation nor how to in pronounce it by its spelling. For example, there are twelve different ways to spell the sound sh in English: shoe, nation, schist, occan, sure, mission, machine, special, mansion, nauseous, conscious, and anxious. To give an opposite example, the vowel combination on can be pronounced in at least five different ways, as in the words through, although, thought, tough, and out.
In order to understand the discrepancies in the English spelling system, it is good to know something about the history of the language. First, it is helpful to realize that English was originally the spoken language of people in England who could neither read nor write. While the uneducated people spoke English, the educated upper classes spoke in French and wrote in Latin. Later, when English became a written language, there was no system for spelling English words. Moreover, the first writers of English were French-speaking scribes who knew English only slightly: therefore, they carried many French spelling habits into English. In addition, these scribes, who were used to writing in Latin, often inserted letters into words even when they were not pronounced because the corresponding word in Latin was spelled that way. The b in debt and doubt, for example, came from Latin debitum and dubiturc. Finally, the confusion increased when the pronunciation of certain words changed while the spelling remained the same. This is the case witli the words light and night, where the gh originally represented a distinct sound.
In conclusion, although it may not improve your spelling, it may soothe your feeling of frustration to know that English spelling is just as difficult for native speakers as it is for foreign learners.
Outline           
I.                   One of the most difficult and confusing aspects about the English language is its spelling system.
A.    Cannot always tell how to spell a word by its pronounciation.
B.     Cannot always pronounce by its sound.
1. For examples

II.                In order to understand the discrepancies in the English spelling system, it is helpful to know something about the history of the language.
A.    English was originally the spoken language of people in England who could neither read nor write.
1.      Uneducated people spoke English.
2.      Educated upperclasses spoke in french and wrote in latin.
B.     English became a written language, there was no system for spelling English words.
C.     The first writers of English were french-speaking seribes who knew English only slightly.
1.      They carried many French spelling habits into speaking.
2.       These seribes who were used to write Latin.
a. Scribes added the b in debt from the Latin Debitum.
b.Scribes added the b in doubt from the Latin dubitare.
D. the confosion increased when the pronounciation of certain words changed while the spelling remained the same.

III. In conclusion, although it may not improve your spelling, it may soothe your feeling of frustration to know that English spelling is just as difficult for native speakers as it is for foreign learners.
B.   Complete the outline for the following paragraph.

Public Transportation in San Francisco
San Francisco has one of the worst public transportation systems in the United States. The first problem is that the buses and streetcars are never on schedule. You often have to wait thirty minutes or more for your bus. Frequently, several buses going in the same direction arrive at the same time, and then, another may not come for thirty more minutes. Second, maintenance is very poor. The buses and street cars often break down, causing long delays. City officials admit that there is an average of five such breakdowns every day. Furthermore, the buses and street cars are in terrible condition. They are always dirty, the windows are frequently broken, and the seals are torn. The third problem is the poor attitude of many of the drivers. They refuse to give information about transfer points, they drive like mad, and they show little consideration for the comfort and safety of their passengers. Recently, a friend mine was actually injured when the driver of a streetcar closed the doors on his fingers. When you are riding a bus, you feel as if you are being tossed around like a bowl of jello because of the sudden stops and starts. A fourth, and by far the most serious problem is the increase in crime. A report from the San Francisco Police Department sews that thefts and assaults have increased forty-three percent over the three previous months. A few days ago, an old man was killed when he tried to resist a thief. In conclusion, because of all these problems, it is becoming increasingly inconvenient and even dangerous to ride public transportation in San Francisco.
Outline            San Francisco has one of the worst public transportation systems in the United States.
A. Schedule problems
1. Long waiting time
2. Simultaneous bus arrivals
B. Maintenance problems
1. Breakdowns
a. Buses and streetcars
b. Average of five breakdowns per day
2. Bad condition of buses and streetcars
a. Dirty
b. The windows are broken
c. The seats are torn
C. Bad attitude of the drivers.
1. They refuse to give information.
2. They drive like mad
3. They show litle consideration comfort and safety of the pasengers.
a. accidents
b. suddent stops and starts
D. the most serious problems is the increase the crime.
In conclusion, because all of these problems, it is becoming increasingly inconvenient and even dangerous to ride public transportation in San Fransisco.             
Practice 22: D

etailed Paragraph Outlining II
A.    Organize the items in the list below into a logical outline. Remember to give the items with equal importance the same kind of letter or number.
Europe                                     France                         Thailand                                             
England                                   Saudi Arabia               Texas
Southeast Asia                        Turkey                         Malaysia         
Canada                                                China                           North America
The United Stales                   The Middle East         Asia    
Mexico                                    California                    Cambodia
New York State                      Los Angeles                Sans Francisco
The Far East                            Iran                              Vietnam
            Japan                                       Quebec                        Ontario
P.63
B. The sentences below are in scrambled order. Arrange them into a logical outline
 American high schools are facing problems on four fronts.
A.    Teachers who have had to Lake Teacher certification examinations show very low scores.
B.     Students aren’t learning anything.
C.     Traditional methods of financing the schools are breaking down.
D.    On the national Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), a national test for high school seniors, the average scores in verbal ability have fallen by ten percent. Teachers are also creating problems for the schools.

Vandalism in the schools is increasing.
A.    In 1975, according to an N.E.A. report, acts of vandalism and theft cost the schools $200 million.
B.     A large school in Chicago, Illinois, reported that one window is broken and two typewriters are stolen every week.
The schools in Cleveland, Ohio, wore closed for three months last winter because they simply ran out of money.
A.    Taxpayers are protesting the increasing costs by voting against tax increases to pay for schools.
B.     During the last ten years, there have been numerous strikes by teachers demanding higher pay and less work.
C.     Collages report that some new freshmen read and write at the sixth-grade level.
D.    Math scores on the SAT have declined by six percent since 1962.